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Rudrahrdayopanishad

 

namaH shivAbhyAm

rudrahR^idayopaniShat is presented to the reader as a conversation between bhagavAn vedavyAsa and his son shuka deva. The chief purport of this upaniShad is to demonstrate shiva-keshavAbheda.

Lord mahArudra is described as sarvadevAtmakaH:

sarvadevAtmako rudraH sarve devAH shivAtmakAH |
rudrasya dakshiNe pArshve ravirbrahmA trayo.agnayaH ||
vAmapArshve umA devI viShNuH somo.api te trayaH |

The identity between viShNu, soma and umA are illustrated and this symbolism is of great interest; we shall deal with it later in greater detail. Another verse from the same upaniShad that is of much interest and seemingly an idea based in the atharvaNa veda is:

rudrAt pravartate bIjaM bIjayonirjanArdanaH ||

The abheda between hari and hara which forms the chief subject of the hymn is illustrated through the following verses:

ye namasyanti govindaM te namasyanti sha~Nkaram |
ye.archayanti hariM bhaktyA te.archayanti vR^iShadhvajam ||
ye dviShanti virUpAkShaM te dviShanti janArdanam |
ye rudraM nAbhijAnanti ten a jAnanti keshavam ||

Those who offer worship or prostrate before nArAyaNa, automatically attain the merit of shiva pUjA due to their inherent oneness. Those who hate virUpAkSha and know not the great Rudra, are equally unaware of keshava and harbor hari dveSha in them.

puMli~NgaM sarvamIshAnaM strIli~NgaM bhagavatyumA |
umArudrAtmakAH sarvAH prajAH sthAvaraja~NgamAH ||

Every male is Rudra and every strI is verily umA. Entire creation is thus umA-rudrAtmaka.

vyaktaM sarvamumArUpAmavyaktaM tu maheshvaram |

Everything that is manifested is umA and the unmanifest is represented by maheshvara.

umAsha~NkarayoryogaH sa yogaH viShNuruchyate ||

The true Yoga is indeed the Union of umA and maheshvara and this yoga is represented by mahAviShNu.

The traividhya of Atman is described below:

AtmAnaM paramAtmAnamantarAtmAnameva cha |
j~nAtvA trividhamAtmAnaM paramAtmAnamAshrayet ||
antarAtmA bhavedbrahmA paramAtmA maheshvaraH |
sarveShAmeva bhUtAnAM viShNurAtmA sanAtanaH ||

One should perceive the traividya of the atman (AtmA, antarAtmA and paramAtmA) and seek the Supreme paramAtman. In every creature, viShNu is described as the AtmA, brahmA as antarAtmA and mahesha as paramAtmA.

The greatness of reciting the name rudra, capable of absolving sins is illustrated next:

shrIrudra rudra rudreti yastaM brUyAdvichakShaNaH |
kIrtanAt sarvadevasya sarvapApaiH pramuchyate ||

It is declared that mokSha is possible only through j~nAna and not karma and the disciple is instructed to approach a sadguru to attain brahmavidyA:

j~nAnAdeva hi saMsAravinAsho naiva karmaNA |
shrotriyaM brahmaniShThaM svaguruM gacChedyathAvidhi |
gurustasmai parAM vidyAM dadyadbrahmAtmabodhinIm ||

The mere kalpitatva of jiveshvara bheda is stated next:

ghaTAkAshamaThakashau yathA.a.akAshaprabhedataH |
kalpitau paramau jIvashivarUpeNa kalpitau ||
tattvatashcha shivaH sAkShAt chijjIvashcha svataH sadA |
chicchidAkArato bhinnA na bhinnA chitvahAnitaH ||

The summary of this section of the upaniShad would thus be: aupAdhiko.ayaM jIveshabhedaH na tAttvikaH iti |

The way to attain shivatva is described as attaining this advaita j~nAna:

ahamasmIti nishchitya vItashoko bhavenmuniH |

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avyakte.achyute brahme parame vishvarUpake |
sAkAre tu nirAkAre sarvAkAre namo.astu te ||